Beaumont Laboratory - Lab Test Details

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Beaumont Laboratory

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Genotyping for Drug Resistance (HIV-1)

HIV Genotyping, HIV Resistance Testing, HIV mutation analysis, IBT #1901, EPIC: LAB6883, SOFT: XHIVG


Note: HIV-1 Viral Load must be at least 1000 copies/mL to perform this test.

Specimen Collection Criteria

Collect: Two Lavender-top EDTA tubes.

Physician Office/Drawsite Specimen Preparation

Centrifuge to separate plasma from cells within 6 hours of collection. Transfer plasma to a plastic transport tube and freeze (-20°C/-4°F or below).

Preparation for Courier Transport

Transport: 2.0 plasma, frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below). (Min: 1.0 mL)

Rejection Criteria

  • Specimens not collected and processed as indicated.


Specimen Stability for Testing:

Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 6 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 24 hours
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): 4 months

Specimen Storage in Department Prior to Disposal:

Specimen retention time is determined by the policy of the reference laboratory. Contact the Sendout Laboratory with any questions.


Sent to Viracor-IBT Laboratories, Lee's Summit, MO.


Monday - Friday.
Results available in 5-9 days.

Reference Range

By report.

Test Methodology

Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and DNA Sequencing.


The recent availability of potent antiretroviral drugs has greatly improved the treatment of individuals infected with HIV. However, due to the high mutation rate of the virus, resistance to these drugs may develop, correlating with clinical progression as defined by commonly accepted endpoints, such as increased viral loads and decreased CD4+ cell counts. As drug resistance becomes more common so does the percentage of newly positive people infected with viral strains already drug resistant.

Clinical Utility

This test is useful for monitoring the drug resistance profiles in patients undergoing antiviral therapy for HIV-1 infection. This assay detects mutations in the HIV viral genes that encode the HIV protease, reverse transciptase, and integrase.

Clinical Disease

Primary HIV infections are symptomatic in 50 - 70% of patients. These patients present with a variety of symptoms including Influenza-like or mononucleosis-like illness to more severe neurological symptoms. These symptoms may persist for a few days or up to two months. Rapid progression to AIDS is seen in patients that experience a longer acute illness. Most patients however, remain asymptomatic for 1 to greater than 10 years before the clinical symptoms of AIDS present.

Disease Reporting

This is a reportable infection and positive results will be reported to the Oakland County Health Department. For more information on reportable diseases, contact the Epidemiology Department at (248) 551-4040.


HIV-1 causes a worldwide pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and AIDS-related complex. In 1995, the World Health Organization estimated that 18 million adults and 1.5 million children are infected with HIV resulting in 4.5 million AIDS cases worldwide.

Incubation Period

The median time from HIV infection to AIDS is 8 - 10 years. Homosexual men and some neonates may progress to AIDS more rapidly than other groups.


HIV-1 is transmitted by blood, blood products, and body fluids. Major modes of HIV-1 transmission include sexual intercourse, parenteral transmission through shared or inadequately sterilized needles, transfusion of HIV-1 infected blood and blood factor concentrates, and mother - to - child transmission either in utero, at birth, or through breast feeding.

CPT Code

87901, 87906.

HIV-1 Viral Load testing may be required prior to HIV-1 genotyping to ensure that a minimum viral load of 1,000 copies/mL is present. 

Test Codes


Last Updated


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This directory currently reflects information only for specimens collected and/or processed at the Farmington Hills, Grosse Pointe, Royal Oak, and Troy campuses.