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Beaumont Laboratory

Yellow Jacket Venom (Allergen Specific IgE)

Yellow Jacket Venom (i3), Antrim #30045, EPIC: LAB5742, SOFT: EYEJ

Specimen Collection Criteria

Collect: One Gold-top SST tube.

Twenty individual allergen assays or allergen screens can be performed on one 5 mL Gold-top SST tube. Each allergen assay requires 100 mcL of serum.

Physician Office/Drawsite Specimen Preparation

Let specimen clot 30-60 minutes then immediately centrifuge to separate serum from cells. Refrigerate (2-8°C or 36-46°F) the centrifuged collection tube within two hours of collection.

Preparation for Courier Transport

Transport: Centrifuged collection tube, refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F).

Rejection Criteria

  • Plasma specimens.
  • Severely lipemic or hemolyzed specimens.

Storage

Specimen Stability for Testing:

Centrifuged SST Tubes and Microtainers® with Separator Gel
Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable

Red-top Tubes and Microtainers® without Separator Gel
Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): Unacceptable
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable

Serum Specimens (Pour-Overs)
Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): 1 month

Specimen Storage in Department Prior to Disposal:

Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days

Laboratory

Royal Oak Special Testing Laboratory.

Performed

Monday - Friday.
Results available the next business day.

Reference Range

Allergy Reference Range: Less than 0.35 kU/L. 

Range (kU/L) Class Interpretation
Less than or equal to 0.34 0 Negative
0.35-0.69 1 Low
0.70-3.49 2 Medium
3.50-17.49 3 High
17.50-49.99 4 Very High
50.0-100.0 5 Very High
Greater than 100 6 Very High

Test Methodology

Fluorescence Enzyme Immunoassay (FEIA).

Interpretation

The allergen class may not be predictive of clinical disease in some patients. The diagnosis of allergy should be based upon patient history and clinical findings. The diagnosis of allergy should not be based upon laboratory findings alone.

Clinical Utility

Positive assay results indicate a high probability of allergic disease. Negative assay results effectively rule out allergy induced by those allergens.

Clinical Disease

In the United States it is estimated that one to two million people are severely allergic to stinging insect venom. Approximately 90 to 100 deaths occur annually from sting reactions. This number may under-represent the true total because some sting reactions are misdiagnosed as heart attacks, sunstroke, or other acute illnesses. More people die each year from the effects of insect venom than from spider or snake bites. One person in 100 who is stung by an insect can develop a fatal reaction.

Typically, an insect sting produces local redness and swelling that resolves in a few hours. Reactions in an allergic individual develop within a few minutes and are more severe than in normal patients. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include intense redness at the sting site, swelling spanning two joints, itching, and pain. A major allergic reaction includes focal swelling, itching, faintness, sweating, headache, stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, constrictive chest, difficulty breathing and swelling of the throat. Severe cases can lead to anaphylactic shock and death. Death can occur without a previous history of a sting allergy. The frequency of fatal reactions due to anaphylaxis also increases with age (1).

The primary allergens of vespid (Yellow Jacket, Hornet, and Wasp) venoms include antigen 5 (nonenzymatic protein), phospholipase A, and hyaluronidase. There are physiological and immunological differences between the honey bee and vespid venoms. However, IgE tests for these allergens do not cross-react (1).

Prophylactic measures must be taken for those individuals who develop severe reactions to insect stings. Specific immunotherapy (hyposensitization) remains the most effective means of treatment. Hyposensitization has a 96% success rate against insect stings.

Reference

  1. Kaplan, Allen P. M.D. Allergy. Churchill Livingstone: New York, pg 508-509, 1985.

CPT Code

86003.

Test Codes

Antrim #30045, EPIC: LAB5742, SOFT: EYEJ

Last Updated

11/03/2017

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This directory currently reflects information only for specimens collected and/or processed at the Farmington Hills, Grosse Pointe, Royal Oak, and Troy campuses.